A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate, and is a part of a sentence.
The two kinds of clauses are :
(i) main clauses (also called independent clauses)
(ii) subordinate clauses (also called dependent clauses)
Main clause (also called co-ordinate clauses)
A main clauses has a subject and predicate and can stand alone as a sentence.
Mother cooks and we eat.
Mother cooks [Main (co-ordinate) clause]
and we eat [Main (co-ordinate) clause] conjunction subject verb
These two clauses are independent and they are joined by a co-ordinating conjunction.
Simple and Compound sentence :-
A simple sentence has only one main clause. A compound sentence has two or more independent or co-ordinate clauses. Tha clauses are joined by co-ordinating Iconjunctions.
I went to market and I bought a pen.
He plays on harmonium and she sings.
Subordinate clauses :-
A subordinate clause has a subject and a predicate but can not stand alone as a sentence. It depends upon the rest of the sentence because it does not make sense itself. A subordinate clause needs a main clause to complete the meaning.
I play cricket whenever I find time.
I play cricket (main clause)
whenever (relative pronoun)
I find time (subordinate clause)
She thanked the man who had helped her.
She thanked the man (main clause)
who (relative pronoun)
had helped her (subordinate clause)
A subordinate clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun.
There are three kinds of subordinate clauses –
1. Noun clause
2. Adjective clause
3. Adverb clause
Noun Clause :-
A clause that is used to work as a noun is called a noun clause.
A noun clause is generally introduced by question words, such as – what, why, when, who, how. They are also introduced by if or whether.
A noun clause can be :
1. The subject of verb
Whoever stole the necklace will be caught.
What he said was true.
2. Object to a verb
She says that she will help me.
I did not hear what he said.
3. The object to a verb
He did not laugh at what you said.
I do not approve of what you are doing.
4. Complement of a verb
This is what I expect.
Life is what you make it.
Adjective Clause :-
An adjective clause is a subordinate clause. It modifies a noun or a pronoun.
An adjective clause normally comes after the word it modifies.
1. The man who has won the first prize is my brother.
The man is my brother (main clause)
Who has won the first prize (adjective clause)
2. The book which i have read tells a true story.
Adjective clause are introduced by who, whom, whose, which, that.
- The girls who serve in this shop are the owner’s daughters.
- The man whom you lead the money is bankrupt.
- The book which I bought yesterday has been lost.
Adverb Clause :-
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adverb or an adjective.
It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent or under what condition the action happens.
An adverb clause is introduced by the subordinating conjunction when, before, while, till, as, after, since etc.
- Whenever I go, I look for a good restaurant. (It tells where)
- I was reading when he came. (It tells when)
- As the teacher entered, all rose in their seats. (It tells when)